Additionally, the complex Stereotomy of the ornamented style is left to free play and is accompanied by moldings drawn from local Late Antique monuments, inscriptions and finely dressed masonry that is beveled along the coursing. The Mosque was of great importance in the Muslim world since it is the oldest congregational mosque in the Islamic architecture (Burgoyne, 68).On the hand, the Mamluk dynasties new form of architecture evolved and flourished as well despite the chaotic political circumstances that prevailed then. Baybars al-Bundugdari, the first Mamluk Sultan completed the removal of the Crusaders and protected the Mongols from invading Egypt (Burgoyne 78). His mosque known as the Mosque of Sultan Baybars is currently worn out though the shape is still intact with the outer walls still standing. The Mosque is much like the al-Hakim’s Mosque, which has projecting portals and corner towers. Moreover, the Mosque has one minaret that stands above the North portal. Additionally, the Mosque’s arcade is supported by both brick piers and columns and have stilted as well as pointed arches. When building the Mosque, Keel-shaped arches were also used as decorative niches at the facade of the entrance. Built between 1283 and 1285, Sultan Quala‘un Complex contained a mosque, madrasa and a maristan (hospital) the most capturing aspect of the building is in the way the limited and irregular space has been allotted in the urban setting. Most mosques in the Mamluk dynasty were built in regular forms and had panoramic views. However, during the Abbasid period, the city became congested and such the architects had to come up with new ideas of building mosques therefore changing from the traditional form during the Ayyubid dynasty. The public nature f the mosques in the urban setting made beautified facades attractive to compensate for the irregular forms they had taken. Unlike in the Ayyubid mosques, the facade of the sultan Qala‘un complex was built tall enough to tower over the streets like a cliff. Seemingly, the tall and decorated minarets were characterized by verticality. The mosques had tall and narrow windows, which were placed closely together; this aspect made one to think that the mosques to were longer and more spacious than they were in reality. From a closer look, the complex’s facades embody some Romanesque influence
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