In an ideal situation, these properties are tunable independently such that optimal materials can be designed with the aim of achieving a cellular response. Practically, mechanical rigidity and bioactivity are two properties that are hard to de-couple. For instance, examples from nanofilm biomaterials created through the LbL method controls rigidity via chemically cross-linking the network of polymers after assembly, while conference of bioactivity is done via surface adsorbed or film-embedded bio-molecules. When film bio-activation is preceded by cross-linking, the embedded bio-molecules could be rendered inaccessible to the cells they are in contact with, whereas when bio-activation is followed by cross-linking, bio-molecular loadings is limited at the surface of the film (Chow & Cheng 35). Thus, for the current approach to making polymer nanofilm coatings, bioactivity and mechanical rigidity of the coating are strongly and usually inversely coupled.Thus, it was important to develop an approach to nanofilm coatings with bioactivity and mechanical rigidity that as tunable independently. One of the strategies to this was surface cross-linking, in which formation of cross-links was confined to the polymer film’s surface region in order not to interfere with species that are bioactive in the interior of the film (Yasuda 129). Nano-particle templating was another strategy used, here, the nanofilm was created alongside spherical latex nano-particles with cross-linking chemically, to improve rigidity of the film and imbue it with porous morphology, while removing nano-particles through dissolution. In this case, the idea revolved around the creation of a polymer nanofilm by hardening the polymer portion using standard methods of cross-linking followed by filling pore spaces with bioactive species (Johal 55). Both of these activities were done to extents that could be controlled independently.In using each of these strategies, there were key questions regarding how much the film would be penetrated by various macromolecular particles and species. Using the cross-linking method, the polymer, is bound to cross-linking agents so that it adsorbs to the film but does not penetrate it, allowing for the formation of cross-links with polymers that were already adsorbed to the surface of the film (Yang et al. In this case, the most essential question was whether the formation of cross-links happened before penetration of the polymer
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