The main aim was to preserve the chastity of the female inmates of the ‘harem’. Gradually, the castration was transformed to circumcision and it became a practice which some people wrapped in a religious cover.Gollaher further claims that girls were circumcised in order to diminish their sexual urge on puberty. This again was done in order to keep their chastity intact. Due to this very reason, there still are areas where girl circumcision is practiced as a custom (Gollaher 194). But Abusharaf does not agree with this view. According to him, such actions cannot guarantee chastity. It is the upbringing and the will power of the girl that will reflect in her actions (her chastity). Moreover, it is against the teachings of Christianity to harm or tyrannize one’s body in order to achieve certain virtues (Abusharaf 184).The parents’ decision regarding circumcision of their children should be regarded as final. Parents may consult their doctors for proper advice. They should properly understand the pros and cons of circumcision and only then should they decide about circumcision. As compared to the 1970s and 1980s, when the rate of circumcision was about 80 percent, by the year 2010, the rate had drastically fallen down to 55 percent. It is worth mentioning here that some studies have warned that such lower rates of circumcision might lead to elevated rates of sexually transmitted diseases. It is astonishing to note the findings of the study that within the next 10 years or so, such infections might cost the exchequer of the United States health department billions of dollars (Freedman).Some people have opposed the practice of circumcision simply due to the reason that it mutilates an important male organ and decreases sexual sensation. Freedman strongly refutes such claims as being baseless and inadequately studied.There are certain common problems, even though of lesser importance, that may arise due to circumcision. Such problems are bleeding, obstruction of the urethra (the opening), infection and irritation at the area of circumcision. There are some serious problems as well but they rarely occur. Such problems are: urethra being damaged, profuse bleeding that may necessitate stitches, and/or a permanent scar.The developed countries have a mixed percentage of people who vouch for and practice circumcision. The western European countries have less incidences of circumcision as compared to United States and
Abusharaf, Rogaia M. Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007. Print.
Fleiss, Paul M., F. Hodges, and Van Howe. “Immunological functions of the human prepuce.” Sexually transmitted infections 74.5 (1998): 364-367. Web. 17 Nov. 2012.
Freedman, Andrew. Circumcision benefits are significant, pediatricians say. Pediatrics, Sep. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012.
Gollaher, David L. Circumcision: A history of the world’s most controversial surgery. New York: Basic Books, 2000. Print.
Hutson, John M. “Circumcision: A surgeon’s perspective.” Symposium on Circumcision 30.3 (2004): 238-240. Journal of Medical Ethics. Web. 17 Nov. 2012.
Melnick, Meredith. CDC: Why are US Circumcision rates declining? Health & Family, Sept. 2011. Web. 17 Nov. 2012.
Somerville, Margaret. The Ethical Canary. Toronto: Penguin Group, 2000. Print.
WHO. New data on male circumcision and HIV prevention: Policy and program implications. WHO/UNAIDS Technical Consultation on Male Circumcision and HIV Prevention, Mar. 2007. Web. 17 Nov. 2012.
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