One can find similarities between Leavis and Williams. He supports Leavis’ notion regarding the real relation between art and experience. However, he does not support the distinction that Leavis has placed between pre and post-industrial-revolution culture. Williams does not consider the ‘old’ culture as valuable and the ‘new’ culture as cheap. Similarly, Williams does not believe that the new lifestyle brought out by the influence of new media is capable of turning the old culture into something new or negative.
Williams’ views on culture and Marxism are very often widely discussed. Williams is immensely influenced by the Marxist ideology in his understanding of the concept of culture. Thus, one finds Williams perceiving culture as “social and material practices, no longer based on raw, unmediated experience but on the given character of processes of production that make up the whole fabric of society” (Juan, 1999, p.4). However, unlike the Marxist paradigm of a base/superstructure, Williams conceives base not as something of a ‘uniform state or a fixed technological mechanism’ but as a dynamic and open-ended process.
One also notices in the later works of Williams he expands his idea of culture by adopting and expanding on Antonio Gramsci's concept of "hegemony. However, for Williams, “hegemony is a process of cultural domination which is never static or total, but continually "renewed, recreated, defended, and modified”. . Raymond Williams' Contribution to the Definition of Culture.
Dworkin, DL & Roman, LG 1993, Views beyond the border country: Raymond Williams and cultural politics, Illustrated Edition, Routledge.
Edwards, Phil 1999, Culture is ordinary: Raymond Williams and cultural materialism, Viewed 30 March 2009, < http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/amroth/scritti/williams.htm>
Juan, E San Jr Spring 1999, Raymond Williams and the idea of Cultural Revolution, College Literature, Findarticles.com, CBS Interactive Inc, Viewed 30 March 2009, < http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3709/is_199904/ai_n8843050/pg_6?tag=content;col1>
Media: McLuhan, McLuhan Hypothesis, Viewed 30 Mar. 09, < http://deoxy.org/media/McLuhan>
Peterson, Mike 2007, Cultural Studies: Raymond Williams: “Culture is Ordinary”, Cultural Studies, Viewed 30 March 2009, < http://cltrlstdies.blogspot.com/2007/10/raymond-williams-culture-is-ordinary.html>
Raymond Williams, Moving from High Culture to Ordinary Culture, Definitions and Discussions on Culture, GenEd- Learning Commons-What is culture?- Definitions- Williams, Viewed 30 March 2009, < http://www.wsu.edu/gened/learn-modules/top_culture/culture-definitions/raymond-williams.html>
Williams, Raymond 1975, Television: Technology and Cultural Form, Taylor & Francis.
Williams, Raymond 1982, The sociology of culture, Schocken Books, New York. Williams, Raymond 1961, The long revolution, Columbia University Press, New York.
Williams, R & Higgins, J 2001, The Raymond Williams reader, Illustrated Edition, Wiley-Blackwell.
Williams, Raymond 2003, Television, 2nd edn, Routledge.
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