This enabled later pooling of data followed by comparison with the data collected from the questionnaires in order to arrive at the results that she obtained. Through this process of analysis, Appleton was able to distill six basic themes prevailing in all the data: (a) Vulnerability – the ambiguous term, (b) vulnerability – a complex mix of factors (c) The continuum of vulnerability (d) professional judgments vs official guidelines (e) the health visitor-Information coordinator and (f) Role diversity and conflict.
Appleton identifies four critical parameters that determine the validity of the results. (a) truth value (b) applicability (c) consistency and (d) Neutrality
The truth value of a research study pertains to how closely it mirrors actual fact, and Sandelowski (1986) states that a research instrument may be said to be valid when there is a level of confidence imbued in the study that it does in fact measure what it sets out to measure. The credibility of a research study will, therefore, be determined by how accurately it describes peoples’ experiences and how closely people who have indeed been through that experience would identify with the results. Reliability and Validity of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods.
* Appleton, Jane V. (1995). “Analyzing Qualitative interview data: addressing issues of
validity and reliability”. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 22, pp 993-997.
* Lofland, j. (1971). “Analyzing social settings: A Guide to Qualitative observation and
Analysis”. Belmont, California: Wadsworth.
* Miles, MB and Huberman A. (1984) “Qualitative Data Analysis: A sourcebook of new
methods.” London: Sage.
* Morse, J.M. (ed) (1991). “Qualitative nursing research. A contemporary dialogue”
* Sandelowski, M. (1986). “The problems of rigor in qualitative research”. Advances in
Nursing Science, 8 (3), pp 27-37
* Shuster, Michael and Shannon, Harry S. (1994). “Annals of Emergency medicine”, 23(5)
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