The second chapter that includes literature review compiles some important concepts and research findings that are relevant to the topic. The third chapter that includes results and findings describes the costs and benefits as well as threats to urban and peri-urban agriculture in the world. The final chapter that includes conclusions lists important policy recommendations to address the probable problems in the sector.Urbanization or shifting of people from rural to the urban areas is known to be a trend that has persisted for several years (Deelstra and Nijwening, 1997).Consequently, the impact of rapid and unplanned expansion of cities include environmental related problems such as exhaustion of natural resources, destruction of forests and landscapes as well as accumulation of solid wastes. The Social related problems include congestion and unhealthy food habits .On the other hand; economical related problems include poverty, household food insecurity and unemployment. Urban and peri-urban agriculture is a household coping strategy during the food price hikes and production shortages (Deelstra and Nijwening, 1997). The produce is consumed by the families, providing direct access to a variety of fresh food items (SAFE Alliance, 1994). Excess produce can be sold in nearby markets and, street food stands. Post-harvest handling of urban farming inquires relatively low cost because the farmers often have direct access to the market places. Short transportation distance, less packaging, storage and refrigeration requirements are characteristics which in turn results to fresher and nutritious foods at competitive market prices as compared to the rural holdings (SAFE Alliance, 1994).Vegetables and annual crops are identified as the most suitable type of crops to be grown in urban areas (SAFE Alliance, 1994).Productivity of urban gardens can be increased to about 15 times higher than the rural holdings. It can annually provide 20 kg/m2 of food, and one job (per 100 m2) in gardening, input supply, marketing and value-adding. This could benefit those disadvantaged groups in the cities (FAO, 2014). However, urban and peri-urban agriculture is not included in government policy frameworks, urban planning or public assistance programs because these benefits are not calculated in national accounting in many countries.Household food security status was compromised in South Asian countries after the
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