The use of theory X works well under certain circumstances; however, this does not work at all once an employee has attained the highest level and is motivated by higher needs. In other words, this theory does not explain human nature. McGregor states that as long as theory X continues to influence managerial strategy, human potentialities cannot be discovered.The inadequacies in theory X led to development of theory Y as integration to replace traditional concepts of direction and control. The human motivations in theory Y may be characterized by the expenditure of physical and mental effort in work. Here, an ordinary person does not dislike work (Miner, 2007).Another assumption in this theory is that external control is not the only means of obtaining effort; men will always exercise self-control as well as self-direction for the objective they may be committed to achieving. It is further assumed that the most significant reward that can be offered in order to obtain commitment is the satisfaction of individual’s self-actualizing needs, which is a direct product of effort directed towards organizational objectives (Miner, 2007).Theory Y also assumes that average people learn under proper conditions to accept and seek responsibly. Many people are able to contribute creatively towards solving the organization problem than contributing to it. Finally, McGregor assumed that the potentialities of the average persons are not fully utilized (Sapru, 2006).This theory leads to preoccupation with the nature of relationship, and creates an environment that will encourage commitment to organizational objectives. This environment also provides opportunities for maximum achievement of the objectives. This theory recognizes the interdependence of human organizations and participative management (Miner, 2007). McGregor states that integration of behavior can be regarded as a key process in management; this demands the need of the individual and that of the organizations to be recognized.Chris Argyris focused on single-loop and double-loop learning, immaturity and maturity continuum, organizational communication and the effects of this on employee motivation, accountability and empowerment (Miner, 2007). In single and double-loop learning, it can be asserted that communication, just like in McGregor’s theory Y, is a desirable thing within the organization. Argyris argues that the same communication can
Miner, J. B. (2007). Organizational Behavior: From theory to practice. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Sapru, R. (2006). Administrative Theories and Management Thought. London: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
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