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CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENCE & RISK Essay Example

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CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENCE & RISK

Australia government is a leader in phasing out the ozone depleting elements (Preston, and Jones, 2006). This has been achieved by the government working closely with the industry players. On the other hand, report by an organization of scientists that measured the HFCs and HCFCs emissions estimates that there was an increase of the 41 ozone depleting substances in the period of 2005 to 2011 (Spratt and Sutton, 2008). These gases were measured in Cape Grip Tasmania (Parson, 2003). The report indicates that by 2011, Australia was still producing 0.9 % of the global CFC emissions. The report that measured the ozone depleting gases between 2005 and 2011 indicated that the substances had increases due to the increase in emission of HFCs and HCFCs (Chasek, Downie and Brown, 2013).On the other in the United States, the ozone depleting substances are classifies into the class I and Class II. The class I include those substances like the CFC that have higher potential of depleting the ozone and have been completely phased out. The class II on the other hand includes HCFCs that are currently being faced out gradually (Preston and Jones, 2006).Some of the companies that emit the gases that lead to the depletion of the ozone layer include the refrigeration and air conditioning industry in Australia that emits the HFC_134a. These substances are actually 1300 more potent than the carbon dioxide. The other elements used in the refrigeration are the HFC-404a that is also more potent than carbon dioxide by about 3900 times (Litfin, 1994). The government has therefore introduced the tax levy on the HFC refrigerants. This levy makes the HFC more expensive so the companies start considering other alternatives. Although the Government of Australia has eastablished policies to reduce the emissions of elements that are depleting the ozone based on the Montreal Protocol, the emissions have remained high (Andersen and Sarma, 2002). A Study commissioned by the government shows high leakage rates in most industrial sectors. This indicates that the government has not done enough to enforce the legislation that would effectively reduce HCF leakage. The supermarkets alone emit 15% and 30% from the refrigeration every single day of their operation (Lough, 2007). In addition, a significant proportion of about 1.5 million of the air conditioned cars and fridges emit metal like element into the atmosphere that is not

Bibliography

Andersen, S. O., and K. M., Sarma., 2002. Protecting the Ozone Layer: the United Nations History, London. Earthscan Press.

Benedick, R., 1998. World Wildlife Fund (U.S.); Institute for the Study of Diplomacy.

Chasek, P., Downie, D., and Brown, J., 2013. Global Environmental Politics, 6th Edition, and Boulder: West view Press.

CSIRO, 2007. Climate change in Australia: Technical report 2007, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Canberra;

Diesendorf, M., 2007. Greenhouse Solutions with Sustainable Energy. Australia: UNSW Press.

Downie , L., 2013. Stratospheric Ozone Depletion. The Routledge Handbook of Global Environmental Politics. New York: Routledge.

Downie, D.L., 1999. The Power to Destroy: Understanding Stratospheric Ozone Politics as a Common Pool Resource Problem. In Barkin, Samuel, J., Shambaugh, V., George E., Anarchy and the Environment: The International Relations of Common Pool Resources. SUNY Press. pp. 97–121.

Downie, D.L., 2011. "Ch. 16: The Vienna Convention Montreal Protocol, and Global Policy to Protect Stratospheric Ozone". In Wexler, Philip. Chemicals, Environment, Health: A Global Management Perspective. CRC Press. pp. 243–260.

Downie, DL., 1993. Comparative Public Policy of Ozone Layer Protection. Political Science 45 (2), pp. 186–197.

Dray, P., and Cagin, S., 1993. Between earth and sky: how CFCs changed our world and endangered the ozone layer. New York: Pantheon Books.

Gareau, B., 2013. From Precaution to Profit: Contemporary Challenges to Environmental Protection in the Montreal Protocol. Yale University Press.

Grundmann, R., 2001. Transnational Environmental Policy: Reconstructing Ozone. Psychology Press.

Litfin, K., 1994. Ozone discourses: Science and politics in global environmental cooperation. New York: Columbia University Press.

Lough, J. M., 2007. Tropical river flow and rainfall reconstructions from coral luminescence: Great Barrier Reef, Australia, Paleoceanography, 22, pp. 2218.

Parson, E., 2003. Protecting the Ozone Layer: Science and Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Preston, B., and Jones, R., 2006. Climate Change Impacts on Australia and the Benefits of Early Action to Reduce Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A consultancy report for the Australian Business Roundtable on Climate Change, CSIRO, Canberra.

Preston, B.L., and Jones, R.N., 2006. Climate Change Impacts on Australia and the Benefits of Early Action to Reduce Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The Australian Business Roundtable on Climate Change, Australia: CSIRO.

Spratt, D., and Sutton, P., 2008. Climate Code Red: The Case for Emergency Action. Australia: Scribe Publications.

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preview essay on CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENCE & RISK
  • Pages: 4 (1000 words)
  • Document Type: Essay
  • Subject: Environmental Studies
  • Level: Ph.D.
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