Examples, of such applications include “large fossil fuel or biomass energy facilities, major CO2-emitting industries, natural gas production, synthetic fuel plants and fossil fuel-based hydrogen production plants” 2014). The carbon salvaged from these sources is then compressed and stored using different methods. Of these one of the commonly used methods is geological storage in which the carbon is “stored in geological formations, such as oil and gas fields, unminable coal beds and deep saline formations” (Metz, 2005). Another one is ocean storage which includes the direct discharge of carbon by-products in ocean water or stored in deep ocean floors. Another approach involves the conversion of carbon dioxide into benign inorganic carbon products, through industrial processes.The calculation of the net amount of reduced carbon dioxide doesnt only depends upon the amount of the gas isolated and stored, but is also affected by other factors such as increase in carbon dioxide production. This anomalous increase in CO2 emission as a result of CCS can be explained by the overall reduced efficiency of the system (Metz, 2005). Reduction in efficiency is caused by the increased use of energy needed for the isolation, compression, storage and transportation of carbon dioxide, and any leakage occurring during the whole series of processes involved. The data collected by IPCC can be visualized in the form of the following graph:The capturing and storage of carbon dioxide is an energy demanding process, thus, a plant with CCS will require roughly 10-40% more energy than a plant without CCS. The current available technologies are able to isolate about 85-90% of the carbon dioxide gas produced in the plant, thus the overall reduction of carbon dioxide in a plant fitted with CCS systems is about 80-90% (IPCC, 2014).The current status of the technology can be reflected by the different types of carbon dioxide systems available: post-combustion, pre-combustion and oxyfuel combustion (Merkel et al, 2010). The choice of the capture system depends upon various factors such as “the concentration of CO2 in the gas stream, the pressure of the gas stream and the fuel type (solid or gas)”. Among the three types of the systems mentioned here, post-production is the most widely used due to its relative simplicity and commercial feasibility. Pre-combustion techniques are
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