The structural components of the brain vary in both simple and complex animals. Simple animals have less complex brains while the complex animals possess intricate brains. The fundamental parts of the brain include inner core, medulla, pons, thalamus, reticular formation, and the cerebellum. The inner core provides a significant connection with the spinal brain while medulla is crucial in the involuntary functions such a breathing, heartbeat, and blood circulation. Pons coordinates movement while thalamus perceives sensory information including vision, hearing, touching, and tasting. The reticular formation is involved in pain perception, sleeping, and walking. On the other hand, the cerebellum is essential in the voluntary movements, memory, nonverbal learning, and modulation of motions. In addition to basic components, the brains of complex animals have higher functions. The limbic system in higher functions of the brain comprises of amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus. Amygdala and hypothalamus consolidates memory and regulates temperature, circadian rhythm, hunger, and endocrine system respectively. Hippocampus is essential in learning and memory. Cerebral cortex that includes frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes, of the grey matter serves to process information in the brain. Other parts of grey matter are the association areas that play a role in remembering, speaking, learning, and thinking. Lesions on temporal lobe, hormonal overreaction, and traumatic experiences can affect behavior and emotion (Green, 2014).A connection between sensation and perception exists although the two terms are different. Sensation entails receiving and relaying external stimuli, and involves senses such as vision, hearing, and smell. On the other hand, perception is the ability of the brain to organize and interpret information by placing it in the right context. People have differences in the way they perceive things. The perception of things is not linear (Green, 2014).
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