The actual weight of ceric (IV) ammonium nitrate undergoes division by the molecular weight of the final volume of the solution to come up with a Ce4+ concentration that is expected. Equation (1) and the table (1) numeric values are essential in the calculation of the Ce4+solution, expected to be 0.100M in concentration.Hereby, only two titrations that are slow is counted out of the three in process. Data from the second titration is revealed in figure 1 and table 3.Volume is calculated using both equation (3) and (4) and first voltage derivative respectively.A slope of the voltage represents the value of the first derivative throughout the whole titration. Moreover, the end-point on titration graph coincides with the maximum point of the first derivative graph. Following this, it is easy and clear to find the end- product of titration. However, the end-point on the titration graph is the same as the maximum point on the first derivative graph. Following this, 19.1mL of Ce4+ in solution forms end-point, which is in red on the table and again represented by a red arrow on the graph 1.Standardization results of titrations are shown in table 4. Primarily, equation (3) was used to calculate the volume end-point. Since the number in the voltmeter did not stabilize as soon as endpoint did pass during titrations. Therefore, because of that, the voltage endpoint was not consistency. Besides voltage is recorded too late on the third titration, and early on the first titration. In addition, there was neglect in the weighing error.Initially, a small amount of Ce4+ is added to the Fe2+ solution, and the number of moles Ce4+ did increase in Fe2+ solution gradually with the continues addition of Ce4+. However, the increase of Ce4+ was persistent until the number of moles of Ce4+ and Fe2+ came to equilibrium. Following this, at the endpoint, the moles of Fe2+ is divided with the Ce4+ solution used and hence the establishment of Ce4+ concentration at the endpoint. Furthermore, mean values of Vceend-point and nFe2+ are used in equation (5).
Work citedKotz, John and Treichel, Paul. Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity. New York: Cengage, 2009.
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