Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in persons with diabetes (Selvin, Marinopoulos, & Berkemnblit, 2004).Josef's glycosylated hemoglobin level is 10%. This test is the standard for monitoring long-term glycemic control and reflects glycemia for the previous 3 months ((Ligaray, 2007). It is a more accurate and stable measure than fasting blood glucose levels. Studies have shown that treatment regimens which reduce glycosylated hemoglobin levels to less than 7% were associated with fewer long-term microvascular complications (American Diabetes Association, 2004). As such persons with diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. They have more than a 2-fold increased risk for cardiovascular death compared with persons without diabetes (Haffner et al, 1998, quoted in Lingaray, 2007). In fact, research has shown that 75% of all deaths among persons with diabetes mellitus can be accounted to cardiovascular pathology (Lingaray, 2007). Glycosylated hemoglobin level more than 9% is considered to be the very high risk for cardiovascular complication. The total cholesterol: HDL ratio is 4. The average ratio would be about 4. The best ratio would be 2 or 3, or less than 4 (Thomas, 2007). The Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus: Causes.
American Diabetes Association. (2004). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 27 (Suppl 1), S15-35.
Diabetes: Australian Facts. (2008). http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:tfBzUvDKX-IJ:www.aihw.gov.au/publications/cvd/daf08/daf08-x01.pdf+diabetes+australian+journal&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=15&gl=in
Kumar, V., Abbas, A., & Fausto, N. (2007). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Publishers, p. 1195
Ligaray, K.P.L. (2007). Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2. Emedicine from WebMD. Retrieved on May 8, 2008 from http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic547.htm
Selvin, E., Marinopoulos, S., Berkemnblit, G., et al (2004). Meta-Analysis: Glycosylated Hemoglobin and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes Mellitus. Annals of Internal Medicine, 141(6), 421-431. Retrieved on May 8, 2008 from http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/full/141/6/421
Thomas, G. 2007. Heart attack prevention. Medicinet.com. Retrieved on May 8, 2008 from http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=14631
Votey, S.R. (2007). Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - A Review. Emedicine from WebMD. Retrieved on May 8, 2008 from http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/TOPIC134.HTM
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