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The Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus: Causes Essay Example

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The Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus: Causes

The Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus: Causes. Studies have shown that hyperglycemia appears to be the determinant of microvascular and metabolic complications and that glycemia is much less related to the macrovascular disease. Insulin resistance, along with concomitant lipid and thrombotic abnormalities, as well as conventional atherosclerotic risk factors like smoking, hypertension, elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein and family history of heart disease determine cardiovascular risk (Ligaray, 2007). Though Josef has given up on smoking and states that he is consuming alcohol only in social limits, the fact that he consumes alcohol every day is not healthy for his heart. He also suffers from hypertension, high LDL, and low HDL levels which further contribute to cardiovascular risk.

Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in persons with diabetes (Selvin, Marinopoulos, & Berkemnblit, 2004).Josef's glycosylated hemoglobin level is 10%. This test is the standard for monitoring long-term glycemic control and reflects glycemia for the previous 3 months ((Ligaray, 2007). It is a more accurate and stable measure than fasting blood glucose levels. Studies have shown that treatment regimens which reduce glycosylated hemoglobin levels to less than 7% were associated with fewer long-term microvascular complications (American Diabetes Association, 2004). As such persons with diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. They have more than a 2-fold increased risk for cardiovascular death compared with persons without diabetes (Haffner et al, 1998, quoted in Lingaray, 2007). In fact, research has shown that 75% of all deaths among persons with diabetes mellitus can be accounted to cardiovascular pathology (Lingaray, 2007). Glycosylated hemoglobin level more than 9% is considered to be the very high risk for cardiovascular complication. The total cholesterol: HDL ratio is 4. The average ratio would be about 4. The best ratio would be 2 or 3, or less than 4 (Thomas, 2007). The Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus: Causes.


American Diabetes Association. (2004). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 27 (Suppl 1), S15-35.

Diabetes: Australian Facts. (2008).

Kumar, V., Abbas, A., & Fausto, N. (2007). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Publishers, p. 1195

Ligaray, K.P.L. (2007). Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2. Emedicine from WebMD. Retrieved on May 8, 2008 from http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic547.htm

Selvin, E., Marinopoulos, S., Berkemnblit, G., et al (2004). Meta-Analysis: Glycosylated Hemoglobin and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes Mellitus. Annals of Internal Medicine, 141(6), 421-431. Retrieved on May 8, 2008 from http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/full/141/6/421

Thomas, G. 2007. Heart attack prevention. Medicinet.com. Retrieved on May 8, 2008 from http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=14631

Votey, S.R. (2007). Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - A Review. Emedicine from WebMD. Retrieved on May 8, 2008 from http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/TOPIC134.HTM

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preview essay on The Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus: Causes
  • Pages: 6 (1500 words)
  • Document Type: Essay
  • Subject: Health Sciences & Medicine
  • Level: Undergraduate
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