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Is Black English more Black (African) or English Essay Example

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Is Black English more Black (African) or English

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At the commencement of words, th changes to d in Black English. An example is where the word those is pronounced as dose. Black English is characterized by a systematic grammar such as the continuous use of habitual tense. It also has self-sound patterns with some scenarios having words that deviate from Standard English in terms of meaning. This example clearly brings out the African dialect in Black English (John 131).According to McWhorter (p.132), some Black English sounds are cross-linguistically different compared to their equivalents in standard American English. These are sounds that are hard to pick up at an older age and are known as marked sounds. He gives an example of the “u” in “but” as a marked sound in Black English. The vowel has a tenser pronunciation, somewhat higher in Black English. It is considered longer than in normal English.According to John and Russell, Black English is characterized by the presence of five verb-tense markers that are absent in Standard English (119). According to Smitherman, the major differences between Black English and Standard English are based on grammatical structure (60).In Black English, a foreigner always has to understand that a simple verb such as walk is only used in the expression of habitual actions(John 137).For most people, it is extremely difficult to master the difference between present action and present action. According to John(139), such difficulties arise from the use of done to intensify the past. It is used in the expression of the recent and not distant past. A good example is:Black English Ebonics are based in the African World View. This a view that emphasizes rhythm, metaphors, analogy, and intuition. These Ebonics radically differ from English views of nature and reality. Its Ebonics are similar to African languages in the form of their uniqueness of speech patterns, voice quality, intonation and certain other culturally learned elements. A good example is the linguistic articulation and tempo control, which are associated with some African American speakers (Cindy 53).Black English patterns are largely linked to the Niger-Congo tongues oral traditions. This means that its patterns are aligned closely with the social constructs of West African people. An appropriate example is:The Problems they experience in terms of pronouncing“sk”, a double consonant, has been witnessed in the

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Works Cited

Cindy, L Vitto. Grammar by Diagram: Understanding English Grammar through Traditional Sentence Diagraming. Toronto: Broadview Press, 2003. Print

Geneva, Smitherman. Black Talk: Words and Phrases from the Hood to the Amen Corner. Boston : Houghton Mifflin, 2000. Print

John R. Rickford and Russell J. Rickford. Spoken Soul. NY: John wiley, 2000. Print

John, McWhorter. Word on the Street: Debunking the Myth of “Pure" Standard English. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Perseus Publishing, 1998. Print

Pullum, G. "African american vernacular english is not standard english with mistakes." The workings of language: From prescriptions to perspectives (1999): 59-66. Print

Quinn, Jim. American Tongue and Cheek: A Populist Guide to Our Language. New York: Penguin, 1992. Print

R., Rickford J. "Linguistics, education, and the ebonics." Dialects, Englishes, and education (2006): 71-92.Print

Smitherman, Geneva. Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977.Print

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