In latent tuberculosis, the organism is present, but usually without any signs and symptoms or any radiographic or bacteriologic evidence of tuberculosis infection. However, the annual risk of developing active disease is five to fifteen percent. Lifetime risk increases to approximately fifty percent in HIV co-infected persons. Mycobacterium tuberculosis may also lead to extra pulmonary tuberculosis, which include infection in the following; bones and joints (pots disease), meninges (meningitis), genital tract, abdomen, pericardium, eye (ocular tuberculosis), adrenal gland (Addison’s disease) and on the skin.Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is the causative agent of tuberculosis. It is a facultative intracellular bacterium. Other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex include; Mycobacterium bovis found mainly in cattle and man and Mycobacterium caprae found in goats.This bacteria is non-motile. It also lacks a capsule and does not form spores. It only grows in the presence of oxygen, therefore referred to as a strict aerobe. It is strongly acid fast and is rod shaped. It requires enriched culture media that is egg based media or agar based media or broth. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has high lipid content in its cell wall and has a slow generation time. It is spread from person to person through the air (Allman 2007, p.Tuberculosis is sensitive to various chemical and physical agents. The treatment of tuberculosis involves first and second line drugs. Treatment mainly involves combination chemotherapy to prevent emergence of resistance and to eradicate the infection within the shortest time possible. The number of drugs should be kept minimal to reduce the incidence of adverse effects (Dixon & Donnelly 2011, p. If monotherapy is given to patients with a large and actively dividing bacillary population, the relatively small number of resistant mutants already present overgrows the drug sensitive bacilli. First line drugs are the most effective and less toxic. They include isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol.Mycobacterium tuberculosis is also sensitive to second line drugs. These are used when there is resistance to first line drugs or in case of failure of clinical response to conventional therapy.These drugs include: amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin, Ethionamide,
Abebe, FF 2012, Is interferon-gamma the right marker for bacille Calmette-Guérin-induced immune protection? The missing link in our understanding of tuberculosis immunology, Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 169, 3, pp. 213-219, Consumer Health Complete - EBSCOhost, EBSCOhost, viewed 28 February 2014.
Allman, T 2007, Tuberculosis, Detroit, MI: Lucent Books/Thomson Gale
Billeskov, R, Elvang, T, Andersen, P, & Dietrich, J 2012, The HyVac4 Subunit Vaccine Efficiently Boosts BCG-Primed Anti-Mycobacterial Protective Immunity, Plos ONE, 7, 6, pp. 1-10, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 28 February 2014.
Crisp, D 2013, The role of the BCG vaccine in preventing tuberculosis in the UK, Practice Nursing, 24, 10, pp. 496-499, CINAHL Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 28 February 2014.
Dixon, A, & Donnelly, E 2011, DNA Vaccines : Types, Advantages, And Limitations, New York: Nova Biomedical Books, eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), EBSCOhost, viewed 28 February 2014.
Lorenzi et al 2010, ‘Intranasal vaccination with messenger RNA as a new approach in gene therapy: Use against tuberculosis’, BMC Biotechnology, 10, p. 77.
Madkour, M 2004, Tuberculosis, Berlin: Springe
Rivas-Santiago, B, & Cervantes-Villagrana, A 2014, Novel approaches to tuberculosis prevention: DNA vaccines, Scandinavian Journal Of Infectious Diseases, 46, 3, pp. 161-168, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 28 February 2014.
Please type your essay title, choose your document type, enter your email and we send you essay samples