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Biology Essay

Plants and people
History of plants as it gives the basis for the examination of terrestrial plant remains as well as the prehistoric marine plants, such as seaweeds and photosynthetic algae. It is apparent that paleobotany differs from paleoethnobotany because paleobotany does not include the relationship between plants and animals, but only considers plant remains in their geological settings (Merlin, 2003).A researcher depends on the collected data in order to support or test the hypothesis of a given
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Essay
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Patient Scenario: Diagnosed with Prostrate Cancer
High blood pressure increases the workload on heart muscle. To compensate for the increasing demand, left ventricle undergoes remodeling and hypertrophy, which in turn puts the person at an increased risk of arrhythmias, sudden death and heart failure in the long run. The vessels are also damaged as a result of atherosclerosis, and the end organ effects are evident in the form of retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke (Porth, 2007). Based on the data provided, what laboratory tests were performed
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Essay
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Philosophy of science is about as useful to scientists as ornithology is to birds. (Attributed to Richard P. Feynman) - discuss.
Philosophers of science are out to validate works of science using reasoning and logic. Philosophers tend to question why things happen the way they do. Science is a field that establishes answers to the questionings from philosophy. According to Feynman, the philosophy of science is an aspect that helps scientists in immense ways although the scientist may never understand the ways in which it does all these. Feynman, as a physician believed in the empirical calculations of science and did not
Pages: 16 (4000 words), Essay
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Provide a discussion of the pathophysiology (ie. signs & symptoms of infection and differential diagnosis where this is appropriate) and epidemiology (ie. define the links in the chain of infection and how and where they can be broken + what is
Interacts intracellularly with the Toll-like receptor-9, which leads to the discharge of proinflammatory cytokines that bring on COX-2-upregulating prostaglandins leading to the initiation of other uncomfortable body feeling like fever (Palmer and Reeder 2001).The infectivity of red cells by malaria parasites, P. falciparum, brings about progressive together with mechanical alteration of the red cells that can deteriorate over time into life-threatening complications of malaria (Choffnes and
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Prader-Willi Syndrome and its Linkage to Genetics
While Prader-Willi Syndrome is considered as a rare genetic disorder, it occurs commonly in a majority of genetic clinics, being obesity’s most common genetic cause as identified to date. Prader-Willi Syndrome is prevalent in people of all races, ethnic backgrounds, and gender (Cassidy & Driscoll 2009).The basis for most of the symptoms presenting in PWS may be due to the brain’s hypothalamic region’s dysfunction (Gelehrter 2008). The hypothalamic region of the fetus is vital during child
Pages: 8 (2000 words), Essay
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Paper 1 Biology
Doctors are important figures during this process because they make decision with regard to the patient’s clinical history. At times, physical examination requires extensive procedures involving the private body parts. In such situations, the patients must make consent. Doctors use the sphygmomanometer, also known as the blood pressure cuff, to measure the blood pressure. This instrument contains an inflatable cuff and a small pressure gauge attached to the cuff. The cuff wraps around the
Pages: 6 (1500 words), Essay
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Principles of Pathology
In many developing countries, these tests still lack quality and thus effect the patient management.The pathological study is a specialist area in science where the performance of the diagnostic tests are judged and observed clearly. The performance of these tests will be successfully achieved if the information and method of diagnosis is not biased. Inaccuracy is an obstacle to healthcare for the people who are severely infected but not diagnosed properly, and for those who are not
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Production of one tonne of a bioproduct by fermentation process
Industrial processes recommend that crops that are rich in sugars or derivatives. The fruits juices are extracted and processed by adding several enzymes and microorganisms. In case of crops, the crops are grounded, refined and mixed with adequate amount of water, then enzymes and added and then the product is fermented. The basic steps of the process include the refining, adding distilled water, fermentation stage 1, fermentation stage 2, fermentation stage 3, distillation, pasteurization and
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Phylum Porifera
Most of the sponge species feed on the food particles or bacteria in the water, where some of them host micro organisms for photosynthesizing processes to act as endosymbionts. Such associations ensure there is maximum production of oxygen and food in the water, as compared to what they consume. However, some sponges that live in environment with small or no food have become carnivores since they mainly prey on crustaceans or other living organisms.Majority of individual animals in this phylum
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Plant Genome Comparison
The genome assembly of Ricinus communis is fairly fragmented with several megabase-sized scaffolds. Fifty percent of the Ricinus communis genome is found to be repetitive DNA, one-third of which is retrotranposons and less than 2% DNA transposons.BLASTZ alignment studies of chromosomal segments of Carica papaya with syntenic regions in Arabidopsis thaliana have shown that 34.8% of Arabidopsis thaliana genes in any one segment correspond to a Carica papaya gene, while only 24.8% of Carica papaya
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Pathogens and Disease
Once they are transmitted to the host, the fungi have an incubation period of between a few days to a few weeks, which is dependent on the host’s susceptibility.Outside the host, it can survive in various media and surfaces and can survive for up to two years at room temperature on skin scales (Campbell et al., 2013: p44). The fungi attach to the skin of the host, colonizing the keratinized surface and using keratinase and elastase to invade the host’s epidermis. However, the fungi remain
Pages: 9 (2250 words), Essay
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Propionate and expression of NRF2
As a transcription factor, NRF-2 regulates various cellular processes like the synthesis of proteins and the cell cycle. The protein is located in specific neurones that function to control translocation of the nuclear and transcription of it’s α and β sub-units (Bruni, et al. The main question that the paper now seeks to answer is whether the SCFA propionate, affects the expression of NRF-2.Gugneja, et al. (1995) successfully cloned NRF-2 with both β and α subunits. The researchers
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Propionate and expression of NRF2
Thioredoxin reductase 1 and sulfiredoxin 1 are also the genes that are targeted by the factor. The genes are the ones that are involved in the reduction and the recovery of peroxiredoxins. The genes are also important in the detoxification of the highly reactive peroxides in the body in the inclusion of hydrogen peroxide. Heme oxygenase 1 is also a target gene. The enzyme catalysis the breaking down of antioxidant and also the anti-inflammatory such as carbon monoxide and protect from a varied
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Pulse Magnetic Field Therapy and Phototherapy in Veterinary Physiotherapy
In this context, the use of magnetism has been termed and established as an important tool in veterinary therapy. The main importance in line with the above is to understand the nature of magnetism that distinguishes the facts from fiction when it comes to the study of this therapy. In this essay, the basic magnetism physics are illustrated in the passage below. In some circumstances, electronics are forced to leave heavy materials with the main aim of charge that influence the outside
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Essay
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Primary and secondary infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
From a different angle of view, treatment for primary infection can hinder the rapid spread of secondary infection because. Sterling et al.2156) state that ‘More than 2 billion persons are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and from this reservoir active tuberculosis will develop in millions of persons in coming decades.’ For instance, medical treatment can hinder the spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from person to person and can save millions of people. Nowadays, treatment for
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Practical biology, Ecology of Heather (Calluna Vulgaris).
The result for one plot through time was compared with the work for different plots one at a time. The data from the year 1985 to the year 2014 was used for the pioneer, building, degenerate, and dead heather. A graph of plot 1a data was plotted for the different values of pioneer, building, degenerate, and dead heather from 1985 to 2014 as shown in graph 1a, 1b, 2, 4, 5. The obtained data was used to show the long term trends of the pioneer building, degenerate, and dead heather. In plot 1a,
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Pathology report responses to disease and injury (veterinary physiotherapy)
An enhanced heart rate is a compensatory phenomenon intended to pump more blood to the muscles of the animals to provide oxygen (Fischer et al. The oxygen is necessary for metabolism to occur to provide a constant energy supply for the animals. The extra oxygen also makes it less likely for the individual animals to succumb to fatigue whenever danger lurks around.Age also determines the type and magnitude of the anatomical and physiological response of the two families of animals to a variety
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Planning research
When different concentrations of sucrose are used, the highest concentration creates a higher concentration gradient that increases the movement of water across the zones as opposed to the experiment with low concentration. When water moves to the plant cell, it swells and becomes rigid because it cannot burst as animal swells that lack a cell wall.The prediction for this piece of experiment is that the visking tube will increase its mass with time because of the osmosis process. The water
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Peer-reviewed journal article
The authors actually found that myocardial hypertrophy is dependent on exercise-induced arterial hypertension, confirming that there was a hypertensive response in athletes as a result of exercise. The athletes with exercise-induced arterial hypertension also showed increased left ventricular mass at 205g/m2, especially in comparison to athletes without exaggerated response in BP to exercise who had a left ventricular mass of 143g/m2 (Leischik et al, 2014). In addition, the findings also show
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Personal genomics and / or personalized medicine for humans
Genomics have a particular influence on health care delivery because of its diverse predictive ethical and social forces. It helps in shaping health care in a specialized manner, showing preliminary success in different types of cancer. The process would it promotes the pre-symptomatic diagnosis, personalized drug dosages, and personalized therapy. The technology of targeted therapies in genomics aims to identify people with the efficacious response to some drugs than giving drugs to those it
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Essay
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