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Biology Essay

Medical Microbiology
Of living cells, such as reproduction, nutrition and movement; however they lack respiration, making them difficult to define as either living or non-living. Unlike bacteria or other cell, viruses contain only DNA or RNA, they do not contain both. Viruses have an unusual form of pathology. Once present in the host’s system, they invade the cells of the host, using the machinery of the cell to replicate themselves. When they have replicated sufficiently, the new viruses burst out of the host
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Microbiology class, answer for each question in 1 page
This DNA is then transferred into the bacteria for the production of large amounts of human insulin from E.Vaccines are produced from microorganisms. Disease causing pathogens are rendered inactive and avirulent by chemical or other treatments. These are then injected into animals and humans to induce immunity against them. Apart from attenuated microorganisms, bacterial and viral proteins and polysaccharides are also used to induce immunity. Thus, microorganisms are also used for prophylactic
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Mating competition between males, Greater control of fertilization by one sex, and Sexually dimorphic sexual behavior between leopard snails
Therefore, it is not obvious that the males will be in competition to win females.The male mating competition in leopard slugs is very exciting. This is because the species is hermaphrodites. The organ that represents the male species looks like two daggers. They are used for both mating and hunting. The slugs involve in penis fence during mating. The partner who gets stubbed becomes the mother by absorbing sperms which later get fertilized.The mode of fertilization will determine if it is the
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Essay
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Mycobacterium leprae & Mycobacterium tuberculosis
185; Levinson 2008, p. The highly resistant nature of mycobacterium explains the easy transmission and difficult prevention of the infectious diseases.The general features about the M. tuberculosis highlight the growth rate of the pathogen, nutritional requirements, strains of the bacterium which are helpful in assessing the treatment plans and diagnostic therapies. tuberculosis grows at a very slow pace and it takes 18 hours to get doubled. Thus, in comparison to other bacteria it has a slower
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Many microbial infections are described as opportunistic. What do you understand by this term? [10%] Give a bacterial, parasitic and a viral example of opportunistic infections giving details of what factors shifted the host-pathogen balance to favo
Infection or dermatologic disorders such as scabies, herpetic ulcer etc., or through vascular access line or drainage tubes causing pyodermas such as folliculitis, abscesses, etc. Once established in the skin, S. aureus invades more deeply into the soft tissue resulting in erysipelas or horizontal spread in lymphatics, and cellulitis or vertical spread into subcutaneous fat. aureus is the most common cause of wound infections”5. Risk factors for surgical wound infections include host factors
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Medical Genetic
During substitution, there will be 1 DNA molecule holding a deletion and one having an insertion. The events above occurs when the mismatch repair mechanism fails, failure of direct repair, and nucleotide-excision repair. This is a Mendelian inheritance.For a trait to be Mendelian, the child that receives the allele that is dominant from either of the parent has to have the trait that is dominant in form. The possession of the phenotype that is recessive occurs only when the child receives the
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Microbial Fuel Cells (Design Study)
Microbial fuel cell, microbial strains of Shewanella oneidensis, Pseudomonas sp., Clostridium acetobutylicum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli, growth medium for the microbes, synthetic wastewater solution.The MFC provided by the lab is single- chamber, with Platinum coated graphite cathode and graphite rod for anode. The cation exchange membrane allows only the protons formed in the anode chamber to move across it and combine with electrons travelling via the external circuit, and
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Microbial communities found within the human body
Most of the microbes associated with humans appear to be not harmful at all, but rather assist in maintaining processes necessary for a healthy body. A surprising finding was that at specific sites on the body, a different set of microbes may perform the same function for different people. For example, on the tongues of two people two entirely different sets of organisms will break down sugars in the same way. This suggests that medical science may be forced to abandon the one-microbe model of
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Molecular Biology
Labelling antibodies is useful as it enables detection of antibodies. Currently, the most commonly used are fluorescent labels, enzyme labels, chemiluminescent labels and radioactive labels. These are sometimes amplified using Avidin-Biotin Conjugate system. Some common fluorescent labels include, Fluorescein isothiocyanate, DAPI, Phycoerithrin and Texas red.When using enzyme labels, an enzyme is covalently attached to the antibody and converts a colourless synthetic substrate to a coloured
Pages: 8 (2000 words), Essay
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Marine Pollution
According to Save our Shores (2014), plastic pollution is undeniably one of the serious threats to the ocean ecosystem constituting of a larger per cent of all the floating trash in the ocean. Plastics normally accumulate in the oceans because they photo-degrade instead of biodegrading (Save our Shores, 2014). Moreover, plastic materials are sometimes swept away by ocean currents and land in swirling vortexes known as ocean gyres or the ocean garbage site. It is apparent that plastics, being
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Molecular Biology
Nasopharyngeal or nasopharyngeal swabs, and various amplification goals that were used in Bordetella are found in more than single species of Bordetella. It is crucial that the results of PCR are well interpreted.Pertussis’ clinical symptoms are typical in children who are not vaccinated. The symptoms include vomiting, coughing spams, and whooping. However, in scenarios of unvaccinated infants and neonates normally present with apnea as a symptoms.pertussis infections in adults, adolescents,
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Molecular Biology
Accuracy unlike the algorithm that was well developed for 3D structure predictions for protein to protein structure complexes when tested on an RNA-protein docking benchmark (Wang, & Smith, 2013).‘3dRPC’ is the novel protocol used in predicting 3D Ribonucleic Acid protein complex structures. It includes; a docking procedure, and a scoring function; ‘RPDOCK,’ and ‘DECK-RP’ respectively. DECK-RP is; distance-dependent and environment-dependent, knowledge-based, and coarse-grained
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Master biological science
The last article mentions several types of DNA damage, caused by UV radiation and X-rays, or errors in replication, and how DNA repair takes place in each instance. Cadmium was shown to inhibit repair of DNA even at low concentrations (Hartwig and Schwerdtle, 2002: 49). Another important consideration is in relation to other types of heavy metals. Nickel for example is carcinogenic based on its solubility in water. (Hartwig and Schwerdtle, 2002: 50). This review only reinforces the fact that
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Molecular biology
Significance of antibacterial and antimicrobial drugs seems to fade with the rise in the bacterial strains exhibiting resistance to single as well as multiple drugs. Hence drug resistance has become an exponentially rising global health hazard rendering world population once again vulnerable to the threats of common diseases (Levy & Marshall, 2004). Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria have been known to exhibit multi-drug resistance leaving health care providers with no antimicrobial
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MIDTERM PAPER
Globally, the average surface temperature has increased over the twentieth century by 0.6 ± 0.2˚C, with a similar rise in marine air and sea-surface temperatures since the late nineteenth century (IPCC 2001b).The global ocean heat content has also increased significantly with a majority of the increase occurring in the upper sea levelsClimate change has an impact on marine ecosystems and species. These effects include change in abundance, timing, distribution, range of migration, prey
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Marine Water Usage, Pollution & Conservation
Scientists are researching ways to do this, and capturing carbon dioxide as a liquid or solid, and then storing it under the sea is one path of research.Marine habitats, such as coral reefs, support biodiversity, which we rely on for food (fish), medicines (from certain marine species we get painkillers and cancer drugs), tourism (e. fishing and scuba diving).Nutrients are essential to life - without them, plants could not grow, and we could not survive. Nutrient cycling is the storage,
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Marine Biology : Whales
They oscillate between lower-latitude breeding zones in winter to high-latitude feeding grounds during summer.Gray whale; they have average length of 13-14 meters, weighing 14-35 tones and are bottom feeders preying on benthic amphipods. They are found in the North Pacific Ocean and migrate between lower-latitude breeding zones in winter to high-latitude feeding hubs in summer. Females are lager in size than males.Blue whale; this whale measures 25-26 meters long weighing 100-120 tones making
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Marine Biology : Sharks
Approximately 4,500 humpback whales out of the possible 7,000 reportedly found their way to Hawaii waters. After the government imposed a ban on commercial whaling through the enactment of the endangered species act, humpback whale numbers are reported to have increased over time. It is now reported that the humpback whales are in excess of 22,000 in the North Pacific Ocean, of which 10,000 of those are said to be around the Hawaii waters. There is a possibility that these numbers have risen
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Molecular Biology
Differential diagnosis could be replaced by reverse transcription polymerase reaction, DNA sequencing and DNA microarray.Quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can be used for differential expression of genes in HGDN and WD-HCC. This method is fast, highly sensitive and specific. The starting material could be liver biopsy or surgical specimen. Identification of lymphomas by demonstration of presence or absence of clonality is done suitaby using PCR. The
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Essay
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Musculoskeletal and neurological diseases and healing in Veterinary Physiotherapy
Musculoskeletal diseases involve soft tissues and therefore there are no visible signs of injury to the animals who have these conditions. The prevention of this condition is controlled from the places where the animals do high rates of strains activities and it’s in the same place where the animals are exposed to unsafe conditions. The animals subject to those risks are identified and the correct physical and psychosocial control measures taken. The control measures include changing how the
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Essay
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