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Biology Essay

Darwin had during the Voyage of the Beagle that led to each of the component parts of his Theory of Evolution (Descent with Modification) that eventually appeared in his book the Origin of Species.
For example, a bird with a distinct beak shape passes this on to some or all of their offspring. Not all variation was heritable; some variation was not passed on from parent to offspring, but was a result of environmental changes, such as hair color as a consequence of exposure to sunlight. This was important for Darwin’s theory of evolution, as for traits to change over time; there was a need for the ability for them to be passed from one generation to the next.When individuals produced
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Description of 5 microbial diseases
The microorganism can also enter the body through open wounds in the skin. In this case, intimate and prolonged contact is necessary. That is why it is very important that family members of the individual diagnosed with leprosy be tested for the disease.The form that HD will be manifested will depend on the host immune response to the bacillus that causes the disease. Leprosy can be classified in five different forms from mild to severe: Indeterminate leprosy (IL),Tuberculoid leprosy (TT),
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DATA INTERPRETATION EXERCISE Clinical Investigation of the Diabetic State
Diabetic ketoacidosis may also occur under condition such as urinary infections, during stressful conditions or trauma and when insufficient insulin is administered. The symptoms for this condition are rapid weight loss, abdominal pain mostly in children, nausea, dehydration due to frequent urination, vomiting, high blood pressure, presence of ketones in urine and depleted levels of Na and Ka as these electrolytes are lost together with urine. Mild conditions are treated by supplying fluid
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DNA fingerprinting
RFLPs are the oldest type of DNA finger prints. For this process, a sample from any part of the body is collected since all the nucleated cells of the body contain DNA. After the sample is collected, DNA is extracted from the sample by using restriction enzymes(Crocket 2001). Restriction enzymes are highly specific enzymes for specific sequences of DNA and they act on and cleave only the sequences they are programmed for. After the DNA samples are properly extracted, specific band patterns are
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Describe the pathology of Parkinsons disease, and the strategies being used/proposed to counteract it
PD results to the loss of more the 70% of the dopamine cells at its onset which is later followed by dopamine terminals asymmetric loss taking place in the striatum.When a patient is affected by PD, his or her circuitry balance in normally lost. The lost comes about as a result of dopamine depletion. The parts that are affected in this case are the indirect and direct pathways whose nuclei are responsible for inhibiting the thalamus. When the activities of these nuclei found in the pathways
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Discuss the diagnosis and differential of vibrio species
This vibrio species is also associated with septicaemia and wound infections. It belongs to the same family with the bacteria that causes cholera and lives in saline saltwater and naturally inhabits coastal waters. It is a salt-requiring or halophilic organism present in higher concentration during the season of summer. It causes gastrointestinal illnesses in human beings. Vibrio parahaemolyticus occurs when people eating undercooked or raw shellfish especially oysters. This vibrio species was
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Discuss the benefits , limitations and methodology of population screening for breast cancer.
The belief that early cancer diagnosis translates into a better chance for mitigation, nonetheless, not everyone who has signs of cancer will benefit from the diagnosis since the cancer my regress without treatment. Thus, to ensure the potential benefits outweigh the harm, there must exist sufficient evidence from randomized tests or trials to indicate that a specific population will benefit from cancer screening, therefore certain principles must be followed before public screening is allowed.
Pages: 6 (1500 words), Essay
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Darwins Theory of Natural Selection and Its Moral Purpose
That the validity and truth of the statement ultimately exists as a function of its existence, there are a number of moral parallels and understandings that can be constructed via immoral understanding of specifically what Darwin’s theory entails. From such a baseline of understanding, the analyst can and should note that the existence of natural selection necessarily precludes any higher power or any need for such a higher power within the world. Although this is quite obvious, the impacts
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Discuss the use of natural and synthetic antibodies as therapeutic tools for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Approximately 5 – 10 % of the diabetes mellitus patients are type I and the rest of the diabetic patients are type II. In both the types’ long term complications such as Cardiovascular disease, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy are very common. (Joslin and Kahn 2005).Antibodies are immunoglobulin protein molecules that are produced by the B cells in the body. Antibodies are used to identify and neutralize the foreign bodies present in the body. Antibodies
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Discuss the Biochemical Principles Behind Mammalian Metabolism Making Reference to a Choice of Lipids, Carbohydrates or Toxin Metabolism
Glucose is in the form of glycogen when in the liver and muscles. This conversion of glucose into glycogen occurs through glycogenesis. Conversely when glucose is in low supply in the blood, it is obtained through the breakdown of glycogen which is supported by the hormone glucagon.Glycolysis is the key process in energy synthesis or carbohydrate metabolism. The process involves the conversion of glucose into pyruvate as well as ATP or energy. Therefore, one may state that pyruvate and energy
Pages: 7 (1750 words), Essay
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DNA synthesis and repair
The semi-conservertive process by which the dna material is duplicated is called DNA replication. The process is termed as semi conservertive since the DNA in the new cell contains one strand from the previous cell and a newly synthesized strand and DNA Replication take place by breaking the hydrogen bonds between bases of the two antiparallel strands (Adams and OIRL Press, 1991, p. The unwinding of the two strands is the starting point the original polynucleotide strand of DNA which serves as
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Describe the biochemical basis of a disease that is a result of a single gene disorder
One such gene mutation is the production of abnormal versions of beta-globin known as the HbS; other mutations in the sickle cell anemia include the HbC and HbE. The DNA sequence in sickle cell anemia carriers is the main reason why the disease is mutational. This means that those suffering from the gene mutation of sickle cell are propagated from the presence of these genes (Kawthalkar, 2012).The sickle cell anemia is an inherited and lifelong disease; patients inherit two genes for the sickle
Pages: 8 (2000 words), Essay
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Differentiation in Caenorhabditis elegans
If the temperatures are increased to 20 degrees Celsius, it will take three and a half days. Now, when the temperatures are 25 degrees Celsius, it will take 2.2 days to complete the same reproductive life cycle. The egg-fertilization of C. Elegans takes place in the adult hermaphrodite that it lays for few hours. After about 40-cell stage, the eggs hatch and c. Eleganse develop through four larval stages (Kulkalmi, 2011, p. When it reaches the adult stage, it produces about 300 progeny and
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Does sildenafil citrate reduce the natural rate of follicular atresia in luteal phase?
Has turned out to be a highly effective factor with regards to fertility, where there could be noticed significant ovarian response in the wake of applying sildenafil to the patients undergoing subfertility. In addition, three-dimensional ultrasound, its comparison with two-dimensional sono AVC, and its extra advantages have also been ascertained by paying heed to ultrasound technique and its necessity during research process and treatment of patients as well. Despite the reality that sono AVC
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Diet and Digestion
In varying amounts, although there are no specific recommendations except in the case of Vitamin D that is required in higher amounts for bone strengthening. Energy requirements decline with age, especially when activity is restricted by illness and such a man need ~2,100 kilocalories a day (Otten et al, 2013: p47). Mineral, vitamin, and protein requirements are largely unchanged, meaning that nutrient-dense foods like fish, eggs, dairy products, bread, vegetables, and fruits/fruit juices were
Pages: 9 (2250 words), Essay
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Diet and Digestion
In simplest terms, the process of digestion is the only way in which nutrients and foods can be broken down and absorbed as useful energy or beneficiary compounds in the human body. For this purpose, digestion plays a more pivotal role in overall human health and development than most individuals would otherwise indicate. Without this vital and pivotal process, essential nutrients and energy could not be broken down and ultimately passed along into the bloodstream as a means of being absorbed
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Do the advantages of using mouthwash far outweigh the disadvantages?
The Chinese are known to have used mouth rinse to treat oral conditions such as gingivitis. Ancient Egyptians also valued hygiene and apart from cleansing their bodies, also used a wide range of locally available products to enhance oral hygiene. For instance, paintings from ancient Egyptian artworks indicate they emphasized whole body cleanliness. Egyptians are documented to have used sodium carbonate to cleanse their mouths. They also made use of cumin, water and honey solutions, frankincense
Pages: 18 (4500 words), Essay
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Darwins Theory
Genetic variation is responsible for various physiological and outward characterizes on organisms (Fay & Wittkopp, 2008). For instance the size and colour of an organism is determined by the gene coding that is already prewired before birth. Due to genetic differences there existed brown and green battles. This color difference plays a significant role in determining survival of these beetles depending on their immediate environment. In this case colour difference in beetle species is a
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Essay
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Dipylidium caninum
Flea larvae, intermediate host, ingest the parasites eggs from feces. The larvae undergo its development cycle from pupae and finally to an adult while still carrying the parasites eggs in its entire development cycle. Dogs and cats during their normal activities ingest these fleas. Thereafter, the parasite finds its way into the digestive system of the animal, anchors itself on the inner walls of the intestines and start producing proglottids thus completing its life cycle. It takes a time
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Essay
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Development of domesticated dogs, and how they impact modern society.
Other authors are of the idea that the domesticated dog originated from several species, extinct and recent that may have commingled together. Darwin’s conclusion is that we may never ascertain the origin with absolute certainty.Today, however, we are closer to finding out the origin of the ordinary dog; this is as a result of studying the combined outcomes of behavioral research, vocalizations, morphology and molecular biology. All of these studies that have been carried out since 1965 by
Pages: 11 (2750 words), Essay
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