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Biology Essay

Climate Change Impacts & Trends
According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, 2013), the American experienced disasters related to adverse changing weather patterns. The impact of these changes included loss of 1114 lives and properties whose total value approximated to $175 billion). These are some of the reasons NOAA makes its data related to changes in climate available to the public to disseminate the awareness. Human activities have increased over the years because of increased population that
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Essay
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Clostridium tetani

The paper tells that all subtypes of Clostridium tetani produce three toxins which are tetanolysin, tetanospasmin and nonspasmogenic toxine (neurotoxin). Tetanospasmin is the toxin that is produced by the vegetative form of the bacteria in absence of oxygen and is the most important toxin in the pathogenesis of tetanus. It spreads through the lymphatic system from the initial place of infection, causing systemic effects. It is a protein based molecule with molecular weight of 150 kDa (Kilo

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Circadian Rhythms
Signals on light activation and deactivation via neurons of retinohypothalamic tract to the SCN, which are further transmitted to pineal gland via the superior cervical ganglion.The superior cervical ganglion releases noradrenaline into pineal cells during dark, which is followed by transformation of serotonin into melatonin. The SCN leads to the release of more melatonin hormone from pineal gland when the light levels are low that in-turn influences the brainstem mechanisms, thus regulating
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Essay
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Cell City
These city walls are the only entrance to the city which are being guarded by several authorities. Likewise in cell membranes there are authorities which are maintaining its integrity. Proteins, lipids and carbohydrates are serving the function of these city authorities in the cell membrane. The main components of the cell membrane are the lipids and the proteins with the proteins forming a major component of the membrane. Fifty five percent of the cell membrane is constituted by proteins. That
Pages: 6 (1500 words), Essay
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Case study: pick anything you like to clone (product cloning ) in mammalian cell
The cell type chosen often determines the viability of the process. Usually, somatic cells for use as donor cells are diploid in nature. The choice of the source of the somatic cells varies according to different studies, but the udder of pigs serves as a source of nuclear donors. The procedure of obtaining nuclear donors entails obtaining a tissue biopsy. Cells obtained from the biopsy undergo the required culture awaiting the other procedures. The treatment of the donor cells prior to the
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Essay
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Clinical Nutrition: Food Safety
Alcoholic hepatitis can occur because inflammatory cytokines might initiate and perpetuate of liver injury by triggering apoptosis pathways through the activation of caspases, resulting in cell death. The inflammation of hepatocytes appears to predispose to liver fibrosis that facilitates the absorption of the gut-produced endotoxin into the portal circulation.
Pages: 7 (1750 words), Essay
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Chronic bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis patients are vulnerable to respiratory infections. This is due to the irritating substances they inhale and due to the fact that the substances are chronic, they lead to impaired mucociliary clearance. As nonciliated metaplastic cells replace ciliated epithelium and the mucous secreting goblet cells become proliferated, the result is impaired mucociliary clearance (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2006). Chronic bronchitis mostly affects adults and it is mostly found in men than in
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Essay
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Comparison between the Plant and Animal Cell
Both cells contain ribosomes. Thus, Amino Acids which are the building blocks for proteins are suspended in the cell sap and so the ribosomes through the use of transfer Ribonucleic Acid (tRNA) the amino acids are brought together and joined to form the protein chain and later the whole organism.
Pages: 6 (1250 words), Essay
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