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Biology Essay

Applied Biology
That is, the enlarged cells may not be able to contract as forcefully and as effectively as the normal-sized and normal functioning cells. This restricted function will directly hinder the heart’s ability to generate expectant force during each beat or contraction, thus limiting heart’s functioning and its’ pumping of blood for all parts of the body. In addition, the function of the electrical system of the heart, which initiates the signals for a contraction, could also get disturbed
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The use of gene therapy to treat genetic diseases.
Hemophilia is a recessive, X linked disease; therefore, genetic segregation and dominance play an important role in the inheritance of hemophilia. The recessive mutated forms of clotting factor VIII and IX are present on the X chromosome. Therefore, the disease is more common in males because they have a single X chromosome and if it has the mutated gene then the person will have hemophilia as unlike females they do not have another X chromosome for compensation. In females, the dominant X
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Cell signalling coursework
When they are activated, the G protein exchanges GDP for GTP. As a result of this dissociation of the GTP-bound α and β/γ subunits, a number of diverse signalling cascades are triggered. Receptors attached to diverse heterotrimeric G protein subtypes can use different scaffolds to activate the small G protein/ MAPK cascade such as Tyr kinases. GPCRs may also utolize PLCβ as a mediator in the activation of PKC and CaMKII, which can either stimulate or inhibit the MAPK pathway downstream.In
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Mycobacterium leprae & Mycobacterium tuberculosis
185; Levinson 2008, p. The highly resistant nature of mycobacterium explains the easy transmission and difficult prevention of the infectious diseases.The general features about the M. tuberculosis highlight the growth rate of the pathogen, nutritional requirements, strains of the bacterium which are helpful in assessing the treatment plans and diagnostic therapies. tuberculosis grows at a very slow pace and it takes 18 hours to get doubled. Thus, in comparison to other bacteria it has a slower
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Bioremediation of toxic heavy metals does it work in practice?
The digestive system of a worm is capable of heavy metal ions detaching from aggregates between these ions and humic substances in the waste as it rots (Pattnaik and Reddy, 2012). In the process of enzymes activation the assimilation of metal ions is mediated by worms.In another research conducted by Turpeinen (2002) it is claimed that different bacteria, fungi, algae and actinomycetes are able to consume large amount of heavy metals. The researcher underlines a special ability of Chlorella,
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Ulcerative colitis
Decreased oxidation of short chain fatty acids, increased intestinal permeability, an increase in the production of sulfides, and decreased methylation,’ (Head, and Jurenka, 2003). Certain cytokines along with anti-oxidant levels as well as the presence of bacteria interfere with normal system functions. These systematic functional abnormalities each contribute to symptoms of ulcerative colitis. For example increased oxidative stress is manifested in the intestinal mucosa of patients. Bowel
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Not sure
The most basic ingredient of the flour is the moderate amount of complex carbohydrates and proteins. A cup of about 192 gram wheat contains about 4.7 grams of fats, 137 grams of carbohydrates and 26 grams of proteins.The presence of such kind of nutrients is not to provide nutrients to humans but to provide proper nourishment to the growing chick in the egg. The presence of protein ensures that the chick will have a proper and healthy physique.It is normally experimented that oil and water does
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HIV/AIDS
Previously integrated approaches for treatment of substance abuse and mental health were quite promising1; however, they involved patients who were not HIV-infected, therefore, this approach needed to be specifically tested for HIV/AIDS patients who also suffered from mental illness and substance abuse disorder.As little was known about how integrated treatment works with HIV-infected patients, this study was an attempt to not only see its efficacy but also to remove barriers so as to make it
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Production of one tonne of a bioproduct by fermentation process
Industrial processes recommend that crops that are rich in sugars or derivatives. The fruits juices are extracted and processed by adding several enzymes and microorganisms. In case of crops, the crops are grounded, refined and mixed with adequate amount of water, then enzymes and added and then the product is fermented. The basic steps of the process include the refining, adding distilled water, fermentation stage 1, fermentation stage 2, fermentation stage 3, distillation, pasteurization and
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Phylum Porifera
Most of the sponge species feed on the food particles or bacteria in the water, where some of them host micro organisms for photosynthesizing processes to act as endosymbionts. Such associations ensure there is maximum production of oxygen and food in the water, as compared to what they consume. However, some sponges that live in environment with small or no food have become carnivores since they mainly prey on crustaceans or other living organisms.Majority of individual animals in this phylum
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Inhibition of DNA processing in heavy metal carcinogenesis
This untangles the DNA releasing the DNA spine again. Since the chemical composition of the DNA remains the same, the untangled DNAs are chemical isomers. Therefore, topoisomerases are isomerase enzymes which work on the DNA topology.The N-terminal domain is then preceded by a highly conserved, 421 amino acid core domain that contains all of the catalytic residues except the active site tyrosine. A protease-sensitive and poorly conserved linker domain comprising 77 amino acidsconnects the core
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Biotechnological solution for Tuberculosis
In latent tuberculosis, the organism is present, but usually without any signs and symptoms or any radiographic or bacteriologic evidence of tuberculosis infection. However, the annual risk of developing active disease is five to fifteen percent. Lifetime risk increases to approximately fifty percent in HIV co-infected persons. Mycobacterium tuberculosis may also lead to extra pulmonary tuberculosis, which include infection in the following; bones and joints (pots disease), meninges
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Nutrition Paper
The person feels basically fine in his stage but starvation is becoming quite common in the second stage.The third stage occurs when the patient starts to starve himself. He starts wearing warmer clothes as starvation leads to cold. The patient also displays many other emotions as a direct result of starvation. These include depression, anxiety, paranoia, irritability, insomnia and exhaustion.It is difficult for immediate friends and families to ignore Anorexia Nervosa. The symptoms appear on
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Diet and Digestion
In simplest terms, the process of digestion is the only way in which nutrients and foods can be broken down and absorbed as useful energy or beneficiary compounds in the human body. For this purpose, digestion plays a more pivotal role in overall human health and development than most individuals would otherwise indicate. Without this vital and pivotal process, essential nutrients and energy could not be broken down and ultimately passed along into the bloodstream as a means of being absorbed
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Do the advantages of using mouthwash far outweigh the disadvantages?
The Chinese are known to have used mouth rinse to treat oral conditions such as gingivitis. Ancient Egyptians also valued hygiene and apart from cleansing their bodies, also used a wide range of locally available products to enhance oral hygiene. For instance, paintings from ancient Egyptian artworks indicate they emphasized whole body cleanliness. Egyptians are documented to have used sodium carbonate to cleanse their mouths. They also made use of cumin, water and honey solutions, frankincense
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Marine Biology : Whales
They oscillate between lower-latitude breeding zones in winter to high-latitude feeding grounds during summer.Gray whale; they have average length of 13-14 meters, weighing 14-35 tones and are bottom feeders preying on benthic amphipods. They are found in the North Pacific Ocean and migrate between lower-latitude breeding zones in winter to high-latitude feeding hubs in summer. Females are lager in size than males.Blue whale; this whale measures 25-26 meters long weighing 100-120 tones making
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Forensic Pathology
With the information given, what is the manner and cause of death? Explain your decision.The manner of death in this case is natural and the cause of death is evident from the scenario that the subject had been working strenuously and vigorously for two hours. Since the subject was hypertensive and had a recent angioplasty, the hard work would have led to stress to the heart, followed by heart attack. Subject when experiences the attack, the pain was so severe that he could not handle it. He
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Molecular Biology
Differential diagnosis could be replaced by reverse transcription polymerase reaction, DNA sequencing and DNA microarray.Quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can be used for differential expression of genes in HGDN and WD-HCC. This method is fast, highly sensitive and specific. The starting material could be liver biopsy or surgical specimen. Identification of lymphomas by demonstration of presence or absence of clonality is done suitaby using PCR. The
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Applied Microbiology
For instance, the polyesters produced by the microorganisms will be used in medical applications like sutures, implants, and urological stents. In addition to this, the polyesters will be used in the treatment of narcolepsy as well as alcohol addiction.Biologic products are derived from natural (biological) products. They include medical products such as vaccines, blood products, and allergenic extracts such as allergy shots. A natural product, on the other hand, is a product of a living
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Co-ordination
When the impulses reach the appropriate level they leave the cord to travel to the target organ.The peripheral system acts as a connection between the nervous system and the rest of the body. The peripheral system is divided into the nerves, the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The nerves are made up of neurones that enable the travel of impulses from the centre where the activity in the body takes place to the CNS. The somatic nervous system allows the control of the
Pages: 8 (2000 words), Essay
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