They are considered as an organic part of the national culture of a certain period of time after which an original literature was written by means of a modified or completely different alphabet in each of these countries. It was a wide-spread phenomenon to compare hanmuna, kambuna and hanvana with Latin language in medieval Europe. Latin (with all its importance in the lexical and syntactic enrichment and stylistic development of a number of European languages) considered as a foreign language, as a result each nation spoke it in their own way. The same thing concerned the perception of Arabic language and literature in Muslim countries. Middle Eastern countries constantly communicated with each other. Trade and cultural ties went far beyond the boundaries of East Asia. Wars with the Turcoman on the northern and western borders of China led to the awareness with culture and traditions of Turkic peoples. Chinese Confucianism penetrated to the neighboring countries of this cultural region as the intellectual system and the example of national identity. Buddhism, in its turn, served as a cultural bridge between China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam, on the one hand and India and Central Asia - on the other. The cultural life of the East Asian countries in their long medieval time was not separated from the outside world and kept its borders opened. In spite of the wars, collapse of the country and other troubles, Chinese culture is not a forgotten phenomenon for exhibitions but a living representation of Chinese traditions. Confucianism lied at the root of this culture and considered to be themain basis of the traditions of the "golden ages". The central idea of Confucianism was the ideal way of life. According to the teachings of Confucius every person must improve himself and achieve the moral heights, which are based on the ancient commandments, which main principles are humanity, duty and justice. An important feature of medieval Chinese culture was an appeal to antiquity as the source of goodness and truth. The new literature eventually passed to the ancient one and appeared in the form of teaching for later times. Antique experience during the middle Ages was reflected in the work of the first great Chinese poet Tao Yuan-Ming. The works of such poets as Cao Zhi, Ruan Ji, Zuo Si predetermined the rise of Chinese poetry. It was regarded as the penetration of poetry in life as a new artistic vision of the world social progress.
John D. Yohannah. A treasury of Asian literature. New York: Harper & Row Publishers, Inc., 1956. Print.
King-Kok Cheung. Asian American Literature: an annotated bibliography. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1988. Web.
Sau-ling Cynthia Wong. Reading Asian American literature: from necessity to extravagance. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1993. Web.
Youngsuk Chae. Politicizing Asian American literature: towards a critical multiculturalism. New York: Routledge, 2008. Web.
G. L. Anderson. Asian literature in English: a guide to information sources. Detroit, Mich.: Gale Research Company, 1981.Web.
Bella Adams. Asian American literature. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008. Web.
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