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AS1- water Essay Example

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Water budget in simple terms is the study of availability of water that involves the natural process of water cycle. However in environmental management, there are many factors that determine water availability; these are described by the USGS (Feb. 13, 2013) as societal and technological factors that influences availability of surface water. Water budgeting has been likened to financial budgeting wherein there are inputs, outputs and changes in the amount of water. Changes in the availability of water are done by breaking down the components of water. Accordingly, basic components of water budgets are precipitations, evapotranspiration, surface water, ground water flow, changes in surface-water and groundwater storage, changes in snow and ice storage, human use and inter-basin transfers. Inter-basin transfers are the movement of water from one watershed to another in order to reduce scarcity of water. The inter-basin transfers of India using big pipelines are largely debated upon since some believe that inter-basin transfer could bring climate change that would cause danger to plants and animals. (Michigan Enviromental Curriculum n.Water budgeting is important in order to know where, when, how much is flowing, and will provide a means of calculating how much is water is still available for use, more importantly, when there is water shortage.There are noticeable differences on the water quality characteristics of surface and ground water. APEC Water, a supplier of drinking water in America, contends that both source of water have contaminants. Ground water contains pesticide chemicals and nitrates while surface water holds bacteria and microorganisms. USGS (21 Aug. 2013), explains general characteristics of surface water are hardness and alkalinity. It states that domestic and industrial users complain hardness of their water because it requires more soap and detergent when washing, and contributes to scaling of boilers and industrial equipment. USGS (21 Aug. 2013) puts forward that hardness is caused by compounds of magnesium and calcium as well as other metals.Groundwater supplies in aquifers below the surface of the earth are the most important source of water supply of the world. It provides water supply to majority of population in the rural areas who do not have access to the public water supply system.Surface water is generally found in streams, lakes and rivers and

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APEC Water. (n.d.) Are there General Differences in the Natural Quality of Groundwater and Surface Water? Retrieved 17 January, 2013 from http://www.freedrinkingwater.com/water_quality/quality2/j-1-08-differences-ground-n-surface-water-quality.htm

(DAS) Dept. Of Atmospheric Sciences (2010). A Summary of the Hydrologic Cycle. Retrieved 17 January 2014 from http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/%28Gh%29/guides/mtr/hyd/smry.rxml

Basic Facts about Aquifers. (n.d.) “How does water get into an aquifer?” Retrieved 17 January 2014 from <http://geology.isu.edu/wapi/envgeo/aquifer_gw_review/text/aquifer_fact4.htm>

Michigan Environmental Education Curriculum. (n.d.) Emerging issue: Inter-basin Water Treatment. Retrieved 18 January 2014 from http://techalive.mtu.edu/meec/module01/WaterTransfer.htm

USGS. (Jan. 11, 2013). Natural Process of Ground-water and Surface Water interaction. Retrieved 17 Jan. 2014 from http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/circ1139/htdocs/natural_processes_of_ground.htm

USGS (Feb. 13, 2013) National Water Census- Water Budgets. Retrieved 17 January 2014 from < http://water.usgs.gov/watercensus/water-budgets.html>

USGS-Water Quality Information (Aug. 21, 2013). Water hardness and alkalinity. Retrieved 17 January 2014 from <http://water.usgs.gov/owq/hardness-alkalinity.html>

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