Show related essays## Ancient and Indigenous Mathematics

Others argue that the central part of indigenous mathematics is based upon two simple questions: How much and how many?It is a convincing argument that long before our early ancestors had need to count their cattle or sheep, their unsophisticatedly organized social systems had simple rituals based on priority and rank. Also, according to Breasted (1988), it is evident that some socialized animals of diverse groups such as the red deer and baboon have some elementary sense of order of precedence, referred to as dominance hierarchy.As time went on, more advanced calculation techniques were required to handle the increasing needs for counting and assigning numbers to sets of objects. Scholars have posited two possibilities for the origin of counting. One is that counting was invented just once and it spread across the globe from that source (Graham, 2012). The other is that counting arose spontaneously through the world more or less on its own from tribe to tribe and place to place.The first view is based upon a noteworthy number of similarities of number systems across the globe. For instance, that even numbers are female and odd numbers are male seems to be virtually a global thing, although modern times do not recognize this distinction. Mumford’s (1998) anthropological studies further suggest that counting was in many cases the core feature of a rite and those who participated in a ritual event were numbered.This unique and single origination of mathematics was also enhanced by the fact that at that time the human mind was fairly uniform and ready for it. Counting, ordering and tallying seemed to have served one and the same purpose regardless of the region. On the other hand, these are almost the same purposes for which counting is basically done today, giving credence to the second notion that all uses were invented early on and this has just not changed over millions of years (Peat, 2006).The Mayan calendar is one example of counting in ancient civilization. The polyhedrals also featured a lot in Mayan art. The ancient Mayan and Egyptian temples are both wonderful examples of polyhedrical structures that incorporated complex mathematics in ancient architecture. According to archeologists, the buildings from Mayan Architecture form fractal-like complex patterns of clusters.There is also an aspect of complex mathematical patterns in Islamic art. Since they are prevented by their religion from

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Peat, D. (2006): Blackfoot Physics; A journey into the Native American Worldview: Phanes

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