The Anatomy of the Human Brain The protective features of the brain, or also called the meninges, are the (1) pia meter, (2) arachnoid, and (3) dura meter. The meninges enclose the spinal cord and brain (Greenfield 1998). The below figure shows the positions of the brain’s three protective membranes:
*image taken from Google pictures
The primary role of meninges, along with the cerebrospinal fluid, is to safeguard the central nervous system (Greenfield 1998).
It is an extremely thin layer made up of fibrous tissue enclosed in its external portion by an area of leveled cells assumed to be fluid-resistant. Basically, the pia mater strongly sticks to the exterior of the spinal cord and brain (Nolte 2009). By enclosing the cerebrospinal fluid the pia mater works with the other protective membranes to shelter the brain.
The arachnoid is a slackly looking sac with a varying expanse, in particular areas fairly small and in others large, between its barriers and nervous system’s exterior (Nolte 2009).
It is the outermost protective membrane, and a thick, sturdy, and solid layer. It can be considered as a case that surrounds the arachnoid; it is also believed to have been adapted to fulfill a number of functions (Solly 2009).
It is a mechanism of cellular transport processes and a physical fortification. It sustains homeostasis by limiting the access of damaging substances from the blood, and by facilitating the access of basic nutrients (Nolte 2009). Basically, the blood-brain barrier resembles a defensive canal that is always closed.
It is formed from arterial blood by an integrated mechanism of active transfer, pinocytosis, and diffusion (Solly 2009). It is a transparent liquid that plugs and encloses the spinal cord and brain and functions as an involuntary protection from shock. The precise process of the production of the cerebrospinal fluid is vague (Solly 2009). After coming from the
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