Or other developed nations have been involved in exploiting the poor and their natural resources and conniving with the elite and the government to promote their economic and political interests.10 These scholars explored the repressive imperialist (post-colonial) conditions that shaped widespread poverty and oppression of lower social classes.Other scholars confirmed the social analysis of radical thinkers. Cristóbal Kay wrote about André Gunder Frank, one of the most influential development theorists.11 He mentioned Frank who wrote in 1966 that the developed countries may not be underdeveloped because they could be undeveloped in the first place.12 Frank asserted that modern underdevelopment is an outcome of historical economic and other forms of relations between the satellite nations that are poor and the metropolitan developed nations.13 He noted the development of lack of development in satellite nations.14 Frank said this in the context of external forces that shape underdevelopment in developing countries because of the lasting effects of colonialism on the colonial relations between developed and underdeveloped nations.15 Colonialism can be argued as an outcome of capitalism, but it also expanded capitalism through creating global markets, which inevitably led to the massive exploitation of minorities and disempowered groups, as evident from the shift to slavery to indentured servitude that was present in modern agricultural and manufacturing industries.Biao sees economic equality in the same terms. He said that the nations in North America and Western Europe are the cities of the globe, while Asia, Africa and Latin America are rural communities.16 The Third World is generally the factor of products, services, and profits for the First World. Maurice Meisner focused on the economic, social, and political inequalities in China that resulted to the formation of Maoism and the rise of Chinese socialism.17 In 1949, China was far from the economic giant it is now because it was poorest nation with millions of poor and disadvantaged people.18 The past revolutions it went through did not result to the communist society its communist leaders wanted, but to collusion between nationalist parties and capitalists. These scholars proved the vast disempowerment of the poor because of the capitalist and postcolonial social structures in their nation.The Third World, however, is
Biao, Lin. “The International Significance of Comrade Mao-Tse Tung’s Theory of People’s War.” Long Live the Victory of People’s War! 1965. 117-122. Accessed January 25, 2014, http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/lin-biao/1965/09/peoples_war/ch07.htm
D’Mello, Bernard. “What is Maoism?” Monthly Review, 22 November 2009. 135-156. Accessed January 25, 2014, http://monthlyreview.org/commentary/what-is-maoism
Kay, Cristóbal. “André Gunder Frank: From the ‘Development of Underdevelopment’ to the ‘World System.’” Development and Change 36, no. 6 (2005): 1177–1183.
Meisner, Maurice. “The Maoist Legacy and Chinese Socialism.” Asian Survey 17, no. 11 (1977): 1016-1027.
Prashad, Vijay. “Bandung.” In The Darker Nations: A Peoples History of the Third World, 31-50. New York: The New Press, 2007.
__________. “Buenos Aires.” In The Darker Nations: A Peoples History of the Third World, 62-75. New York: The New Press, 2007.
__________. “Brussels.” In The Darker Nations: A Peoples History of the Third World, 16-30. New York: The New Press, 2007.
___________. “Cairo.” In The Darker Nations: A Peoples History of the Third World, 51-61. New York: The New Press, 2007.
___________. “Introduction.” In The Darker Nations: A Peoples History of the Third World, xv. New York: The New Press, 2007.
___________. “Paris.” In The Darker Nations: A Peoples History of the Third World, 3-15. New York: The New Press, 2007.
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